BBS

Risk assessment of Alzheimer's disease (ARDX®)

ARDX® is a standardized low-threshold test which extends current dementia screening tests by an evidence based biomarker (hippocampus volumetry).

ardx

Based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain the individual hippocampus volume is analyzed by a computerized technique in a central lab of jung diagnostics, a provider of healthcare services. MRI examination takes only a few minutes and administration of a contrast agent is not necessary.

Hippocampus volumetry has been validated in numerous scientific studies and the computerized technique is a CE marked medical device.

This information is available as a broschure for downloading. Further information (study results, publications etc.) are available on request.

Indication

Subjects with memory complains with general risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease.

General risk factors are:

  • senior age
  • family predisposition
  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • depression

Outcome of the assessment

In case of a negative finding (normal hippocampal volume) an early dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease can be excluded with a high likelihood momentarily (Suppa et al. 2015a) and for the coming three years (Suppa et al. 2015b).

In case of a positive finding (reduced hippocampal volume) a complementary examination with a specialist is advised.

Remarks and possible side effects

  • A reduced hippocampal volume is not sufficient for a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease since an abnormal volume reduction of the hippocampus may be caused by multiple other diseases.
  • In the context of a diagnostic evaluation a positive test result can be regarded as a marker for neuronal damage due to Alzheimer’s disease according to the NIA-AA research criteria (Albert et al. 2011) and the clinical guidelines of the European federation of the Neurological Societies (EFNS) (Hort et al. 2010) (evidence level B). Recent studies of the past 5 years support this recommendation.
  • A thorough counseling is mandatory. Prior to the assessment the likelihood and consequences of a positive finding should be explained.
  • A current study (Bartzsch et al. 2015) demonstrated that ARDX® contains fear and anxiety of Alzheimer’s disease. For 90% of the participants the assessment opened up a new perspective. Acceptance of the assessment was very high (94%).
  • A risk assessment for other causes of dementia is currently not possible.

jung diagnostics has conducted a systematic study program jointly together with re-known Alzheimer experts. Results were published in scientific journals, which underline the clinical value of ARDX®. Publications can be provided on request:

Bartzsch O, Gertheiss J, Calabrese P (2015) Wert und Akzeptanz einer Alzheimer-Risikodiagnostik. Nervenarzt. DOI 10.1007/s00115-015-4402-x (online-Ausgabe).

Suppa P, Anker U, Spies L, Bopp I, Rüegger-Frey B, Klaghofer R, Gocke C, Hampel H, Beck S and Buchert R (2015a) Fully automated atlas-based hippocampal volumetry for detection of Alzheimer’s disease in a memory clinic setting. J Alzheimers Dis 44:183–193.

Suppa P, Hampel H, Spies L, Fiebach J, Dubois B and Buchert R (2015b) Fully automated atlas-based hippocampal volumetry for clinical routine: validation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the ADNI cohort. J Alzheimers Dis 46:199–209.

Further literature

Albert MS et al. (2011) The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer’s Association workgroup, Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7:270-9

Hort J et al. (2010) EFNS guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease. European Journal of Neurology 17:1236-1248.

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